Difficulties of time and distance and of bad weather and lack of supplies, no less than the resistance of the Christians, forced the sultan to raise the siege. Information on sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, his wife Hurrem, and daugther Mihrimah. Süleyman the Magnificent, byname Süleyman I or the Lawgiver, Turkish Süleyman Muhteşem or Kanuni (born November –April —died September 5/6. The Knights Hospitallers' piracy even imperiled Muslims who set sail to make the haj, the pilgrimage to Mecca that is one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World COPYRIGHT The Gale Group Inc. Under Suleiman, the Ottoman Empire became the Islamic world's Sunni exemplar. Suleiman spent his childhood in Trabzon, where Selim was governor. As a prince, Suleiman himself received the governorship first of Kefe Fedosiya and then, inof Manisa.
In — he acted as regent during his father's campaign against Iran. In —, he oversaw the defense of Edirne while his father campaigned against the Mamluks in Syria and Egypt. Suleiman suceeded to the throne in September In Syria, he immediately suppressed the revolt of a former Mamluk governor, Janberdi Ghazali, and then, using as a pretext the Hungarian maltreatment of his ambassador, he attacked Hungary incapturing Belgrade.
Inhe conquered Rhodes, allowing the Knights of St. John to depart freely. InFerdinand occupied Buda. Suleiman, however, expelled him from Buda, re-enthroned Szapolyai, and unsuccessfully besieged Viennathe highwater mark of Ottoman expansion efforts.
InFerdinand again besieged Buda, and Suleiman again invaded, forcing Ferdinand to an agreement that left Szapolyai as king of central and eastern Hungary and himself as king in the west and north, both ruling as Suleiman's tributaries.
InSuleiman's the lawgiver biography vizier Ibrahim Pasha reoccupied Bitlis, whose lord had defected to Shah Tahmasb. Next year he occupied Tabriz and, after the sultan had joined him, Baghdad.
Bythe sultan had added Baghdad, Erzurum, and, temporarily, Van to his empire. The Spanish threat materialized with the the lawgiver biography of Tunis by Charles V—king of SpainHoly Roman emperor, and brother of Ferdinand—in This was a factor persuading Suleiman to agree in to an anti-Habsburg alliance with Francewhich lasted until the Franco-Spanish treaty of A proposed Franco-Ottoman campaign in Italy in failed to materialize.
Instead Suleiman unsuccessfully besieged Venetian Corfu. Inby contrast, Barbarossa captured most of the Venetian islands in the Aegean and defeated a combined Spanish, Venetian, and papal fleet in the Gulf of Prevesa. The war ended inconcluding the period of Suleiman's major conquests. In Hungary, meanwhile, Szapolyai's death activated Ferdinand's claim, and in and he besieged Buda.
Suleiman responded by converting central Hungary to an Ottoman province and Transylvania in the east to a kingdom under Ottoman suzerainty for Szapolyai's infant son, John Sigismund. Inhe led a the lawgiver biography to Hungary, securing a line of fortresses along the western border.
The war ended inbut Ferdinand's claim to Transylvania continued. In the Mediterranean, too, the war with the Habsburgs continued.
Charles V's failure to capture Algiers in encouraged Francis I to renew the Ottoman alliance, and in a Franco-Ottoman force stormed Nice. The Spanish occupation of Monastir and Mahdia on the Tunisian coast in encouraged further cooperation, but when inthe French fleet failed to appear for a joint campaign, the Ottoman admiral, Sinan Pasha, instead seized Tripoli from the Knights of St. Ottoman expansion in North Africa continued with the capture of Wahran and Bizerta in — and the expulsion of the Spaniards from Jerba in However, Suleiman's last major naval campaign against the Knights on Maltainwas a failure.
Immediately afterSuleiman's main concern was the eastern front and Iran. Inthe flight of Shah Tahmasb's brother to Istanbul gave Suleiman the opportunity to invade, but again without conquest apart from the recapture of Van. A the lawgiver biography Iranian campaign in — was equally unproductive, concluding with the treaty of Amasya infixing the borders between the two empires.
Afterthe sultan's attention turned to Hungary again. With the bulk of Ottoman forces at Malta, Ferdinand's son Maximilian pressed his claim to Transylvania: Suleiman's response was to launch a major campaign in During his reign, Suleiman had added central Hungary, Iraqand territories in eastern Anatolia, the Aegean, and North Africa to the Ottoman Empire, while from the s his fleets dominated the eastern Mediterranean.
The kings of France, Muslim rulers in Indiaand the sultan of Aceh Sumatra sought him as an the lawgiver biography, emphasizing his stature as ruler of a world empire. His reach into the the lawgiver biography Mediterranean, however, depended on cooperation with the French and the semiautonomous Algerians. AfterHabsburg power in central Europe and the Mediterranean, and the Safavids on his eastern border, together with geographical the lawgivers biography, limited the scope for further the lawgiver biography and, in the age of Iberian maritime empires, the Ottoman Empire remained essentially land-based.
Despite a memorandum of urging Suleiman to establish an Ottoman hegemony in the Indian Oceanefforts to disrupt Portuguese shipping at sea and to dislodge the Portuguese from Diu in and Hormuz in were unsuccessful. Despite incessant warfare, the reign was a period of prosperity in the Ottoman Empire. Tax censuses indicate a rising population, with an increase in the number and size of settlements.
The treasury remained in surplus, and the standard of the silver currency relatively stable. There were, however, discontents, particularly in Anatolia, leading to a series of popular revolts in the s. In the lawgiver biography, the Safavid shahs made messianic claims, and their many adherents in the Ottoman East posed a constant threat of rebellion, which the sultan controlled through a network of informers. Suleiman's reign brought conflict within the dynasty.
The royal family reproduced through concubines: It had also been customary to limit each concubine to one son, with civil war and fratricide deciding which one was to succeed.
As an only son, Suleiman had succeeded to the throne unchallenged. However, early in his reign Suleiman became infatuated with his Slavic concubine Hurrem known as Roxelanna in the West who bore him more than one son and, inbecame his wife.
Inwhen rivalry for the succession increased, Suleiman, probably with the collusion of Hurrem and her faction, executed Mustafa, his son by the concubine Mahidevran, leaving Hurrem's sons Bayezid and Selim as sole contestants.
After her death inBayezid rebelled. Suffering defeat inhe fled to Iran, where, after Shah Tahmasb had extracted a peace agreement and a payment from Suleiman, he was executed, leaving Selim as sole heir.
Suleiman was intensely conscious of his image. A number of European engravings, all deriving from a single original, give a sense of his appearance, which he clearly tended, applying make-up in his old age to hide blemishes. To his ordinary subjects, however, he would appear only occasionally as a distant figure in a magnificent cavalcade. More enduring are his titles. To Europeans, he is "the Magnificent" in reference to the extent of his empire, and to his youthful ostentation, best known to the Venetians in his commission of a bejewelled triple tiara in To Muslims he is "the Lawgiver," a title the lawgiver biography attested in the eighteenth century, but presumably used earlier.
Suleiman was the first Ottoman sultan to adopt formally the title of caliph, implying leadership of the Islamic world. The impetus for the claim came from his overwhelming power, his status as the lawgiver biography of the Holy Cities, and the need to counter Safavid claims and to emulate Charles V's status as Holy Roman emperor. After the Ottoman-Habsburg treaty ofwhere Charles V no longer used the title "Emperor," Suleiman also adopted the epithet "Caesar" or "breaker of Caesars.
Its completion in coincided with Bayezid's rebellion, an event that undermined his caliphal-imperial image. Nonetheless, his death on the battlefield secured him the posthumous title of "Holy Warrior and Martyr. The Turkish Letters of Ogier de Busbecq, Imperial Ambassador at Constantinople, — Kunt, Metin, and Christine Woodhead, eds. London and New York I Veinstein, Gilles, ed. Soliman le Magnifique et son temps. Colin Imber Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
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