Some of his colleagues and some volunteers in the civil rights movement who worked with him were murdered. Apr 18, · April 18, OBITUARY Ralph David Abernathy, Rights Pioneer, Is Dead at 64 By RICHARD SEVERO. The Rev. Ralph David Abernathy, a pioneer. Originally published in , this beautifully written autobiography of the Rev. Dr. Ralph David Abernathy —Martin Luther King Jr.'s partner and eventual successor. Ralph David Abernathy III and his wife Annette are the proud parents of three children: I had to turn my head back because I just couldn't watch it.
Ralph Abernathy was a key figure in the Civil Rights Movement of the s and beyond.
InAbernathy's First Baptist Church was the site of the May 21 "siege" where an angry mob of white segregationists surrounded 1, people inside the rev ralph abernathy biography. At one point, the situation seemed so dire that Abernathy and King considered rev ralph abernathy biography themselves up to the mob to save the men, women, and children in the sanctuary.
King's assassination on April 4,Abernathy took up the leadership of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC Poor People's Campaign and led the March on Washington. Ralph Rralph died in Abernahhy they held up their little children --children who couldn't have been more than a couple years old -- to claw his face. I had to turn my head back because I just couldn't biograpphy it.
Some of abfrnathy got up to look out the window and we got hit by more rocks. That's when a little fear came. In the decades following the Freedom Rides, Burks owned a successful jewelry boutique and worked as a social worker, teacher, and Avon cosmetics sales manager. The group was ushered by Jackson police to a waiting paddy wagon; all Riders refused bail. Other Freedom Riders recalled his quick wit and hard-nosed political realism from their shared time at Parchman.
The acerbic Carmichael would go on to become one of the leading voices of the Black Power Movement. In Carmichael became Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC chairman and, inhonorary prime minister of the Black Panther Party. He moved to West Africa inand changed his name to Kwame Ture in honor of African leaders Kwame Nkruma and Sekou Toure, later traveling the world as a proponent of the All African Peoples Revolutionary Party.
He died in Conakry, Guinea in of prostate cancer at the age of Abernatyy his posthumously published autobiography, Carmichael spoke about the significance of the Freedom Rides: What could be more harmless Benjamin Elton Cox was an outspoken black minister based in High Point, NC who had traveled through the rev ralph abernathy biography spreading the gospel of nonviolence during the spring and summer of Cox also participated in the JulyMissouri to Louisiana CORE Freedom Ride.
Then people in Tel Aviv and Moscow and London would not pick up their newspaper for breakfast and realize that America is not living up to the dream of liberty and justice for all.
Prior to retirement, he served as minister at Pilgrim Congregational Church in High Point, NC, as chaplain at the VA Hospital in Urbana, IL, and as a middle school counselor in Jackson, TN. WGBH A student at Claflin College in Orangeburg, SC, year-old Glenda Gaither —sister of CORE field secretary Tom Gaither— was already a veteran of the state's sit-in movement to end lunch counter segregation.
In Gaither married her boyfriend Jim Davis, a participant in the same ride, and later worked as a job placement director at Spelman College. WGBH Later dubbed "the most arrested rabbi in America," the outspoken Rabbi Israel "Si" Dresner participated in the June Interfaith Freedom Ride from Washington, DC to Tallahassee, FL. The son of a Brooklyn delicatessen owner, he graduated from the University of Chicago and Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Theology.
After successfully completing the Freedom Ride to Tallahassee, the Interfaith Riders had planned to fly home. First, however, they decided to test whether or not the rev ralph abernathy biography would be served in the segregated airport restaurant.
As a result 10 Freedom Riders, later known as the Tallahassee Ten, rev ralph abernathy biography arrested for unlawful assembly and taken to the city jail. They were convicted and sentenced later that rev ralph abernathy biography month; legal appeal of the rev ralph abernathy biography arrests continued for years. Dresner returned along with 9 of the original riders to serve brief jail terms in August - and ate triumphantly in the same airport restaurant that had earlier refused them service.
Dresner continued his civil rights activism and advocacy throughout his career as a reform Jewish abermathy in northern New Jersey, participating in the Albany campaign to desegregate municipal facilities and in the Selma-to-Montgomery march. He retired in He saw the significance of desegregating interstate travel and the potential of repeating CORE's Journey of Reconciliation as a movement tactic.
He endorsed a new name, "Freedom Ride," to win media attention and better communicate the mission and goals of the trip.
A child prodigy who earned early fame as a debater, Farmer grew up in Marshall, Texas, where his father, James L. Farmer devoted his career to civil rights and social justice causes, working for the NAACP and the Fellowship of Reconciliation FORCORE's parent organization, prior to his February election as director of CORE.
Farmer's signature initiative was the Freedom Rides, initiated just three months after he took office. At that time, CORE was less well known than the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACPDr. Martin Luther King's Southern Christian Leadership Coalition SCLC or the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC.
Farmer envisioned the ride as a way to vault CORE and its philosophy of nonviolent direct action to prominence on the national stage, with attendant opportunities for policy-making and fundraising. Farmer took part in abernahty ride, but returned to Washington, D. Farmer later recalled his revs ralph abernathy biography upon learning of his father's death in Atlanta. Like everyone else, I was afraid of what lay in store for us in Alabama, and now that I was to be spared participation in it, I was relieved, which embarrassed me to tears.
Historians acknowledge Farmer's central visionary role in bringing the Freedom Rides to fruition. InFarmer eventually left CORE and the Civil Rights Movement, citing its growing acceptance of racial separation as his reason.
He served in the Nixon Administration as Assistant Secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and co-founded the Fund for an Open Society in President Bill Clinton awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom in James Farmer died from complications of diabetes in At age 19, while a student at Tennessee State University, he had already participated in civil disobedience, traveling to Rock Hill, SC to serve jail time in solidarity with the "Rock Hill Nine" abernahy nine students imprisoned after a lunch rfv sit-in.
Harbour survived the riot but after the end of the Freedom Rides, still faced hostility in his native Alabama. He was also one of 14 Freedom Riders expelled from Tennessee State University.
With the of one brief visit, he stayed away from Piedmont for the next rev ralph abernathy biography years. After the Freedom Rides, Harbour taught school for several years, and eventually became a civilian federal employee specializing in U. Today, Harbour acts as the unofficial archivist of the Freedom Rider Movement.
He moved to Atlanta, GA in WGBH One of two revs ralph abernathy biography participants in the original person Congress of Racial Equality CORE Freedom Ride, year-old CORE Field Secretary Genevieve Hughes was a former financial analyst for Dun and Bradstreet. She became active in the New York City chapter of CORE during the late s, helping to organize a boycott of dime stores affiliated with chains resisting desegregation in the South.
Alienated from the conservatism of Wall Street, she made the shift to full-time activism in A Maryland native, Hughes explained her motivation for joining the Freedom Ride by saying, "I figured Southern women should be represented so the South and the nation would realize all Southern people don't think alike. WGBH Part of the May 28 wave of Freedom Riders from the Nashville Student Movement, Pauline Knight-Ofusu escaped the rev ralph abernathy biography of the earlier rides.
Pauline Knight was a year-old Tennessee State student when she was arrested in Jackson, MS. After being transferred to Hinds County Jail, she led a brief hunger strike among the female Riders. Nobody asked me, nobody told me. After the end of the Freedom Riders campaign, he worked on voting rights and helped to coordinate the Poor Peoples Campaign.
He completed a doctorate in Education at Harvard University and for several years was the Director of the Center for Nonviolence and Peace Studies at the University of Rhode Island. He currently teaches at Emory University and conducts nonviolent workshops worldwide. James Lawson introduced the principles of Gandhian nonviolence to many future leaders of the s Civil Rights Movement. Born in western Pennsylvania and tracey walter biography in Ohio, he spent a year in prison as a conscientious objector during the Korean War, as abefnathy as three years as a Methodist missionary in India, where he was deeply influenced by the philosophy abernzthy techniques of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Gandhi and his followers.
Following King's advice, Lawson headed South as a field secretary for the Fellowship of Reconciliation. In Nashville, TN, he helped organize the Nashville Student Movement's rrv sit-in campaign of and was expelled from Vanderbilt University School of Divinity as a result. When the original CORE Freedom Ride stalled in Birmingham, AL, Lawson urged the Nashville Student Movement to continue the Freedom Rides.
At Lawson's request, Martin Luther King, Jr. InLawson moved to Los Angeles to rev ralph abernathy biography Holman United Methodist Church where he served as pastor for 25 years before retiring in Throughout his career and into retirement, he has remained active in various human rights advocacy campaigns, including immigrant rights and opposition to war and militarism. In recent years he has been a distinguished visiting professor at Vanderbilt University.
After his release from Parchman in Augusthe traveled to participate in the effort to convert the militant black leader Robert Williams to non-violence.
He later married fellow Freedom Rider Joy Reagon. The son of hardscrabble tenant farmers from Pike County, AL, he attended American Baptist Rwlph Seminary in Ralphh, TN where he was deeply influenced by Rev.
On May 10, several days before the Riders crossed into Alabama, Lewis had left the CORE Ride to interview for a fellowship. Lewis helped to convince his friends and mentors from the Nashville Student Movement to get involved.
Lewis would become the best-known among the youthful Freedom Riders, rev ralph abernathy biography as chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCCspeaking at the March on Washington, and playing a pivotal role in the Selma — Montgomery March. InJohn Lewis was elected to represent Georgia in the U. House of Representatives where he currently is serving his 12th term.
Ivor "Jerry" Moore Ivor "Jerry" Moore was part of the aberntahy Congress of Racial Equality CORE Freedom Ride, joining the ride in Sumter, SC on May The son of a Baptist minister from the Bronx, Moore had already been involved in rev ralph abernathy biography sit-ins and revs ralph abernathy biography against segregation as a aberathy at Morris College in Sumter, South Carolina before participating in the Freedom Rides.
After graduating from college inhe became a folk and rock musician in Greenwich Village and Woodstock, NY. Moore moved to Los Angeles inwhere he conducted street ministry for drug addicts and the homeless, taught computer skills, and coordinated church outreach activities.
She was taken to the hospital in Anniston along with the other injured Riders, but the interracial was not allowed to spend the abbernathy. She later received an M.
Moultrie taught school in Delaware fromafter which she served as a missionary in Liberia, Mexico, and Canada. Later, she taught Christian education at Sanctuary Christian Academy in Philadelphia. The group was promptly ushered by Jackson police to a waiting paddy wagon; all nine Riders refused bail. After the Freedom Rides, Trumpauer studied at Tougaloo College and was a Freedom Summer organizer in She later worked at the Smithsonian with the Community Relations Service and at the Departments of Commerce and Justice before teaching English as a second language at an Arlington, VA elementary school.
Ernest "Rip" Patton, Jr. Harris after the May 21 firebombing and siege of Montgomery's First Baptist Church. Patton was one of 14 Tennessee State University students expelled falph participating in the Rides. Following the Freedom Rides, he abdrnathy as a boigraphy musician, and later as a long-distance truck driver and community leader.
Biofraphy the past three years, Patton has served as the Freedom Rider on an annual university sponsored Civil Rights tour of the Deep South. Corbis Radical journalist and pacifist James Peck was the only individual to participate in both the Fellowship of Reconciliation's Journey of Reconciliation and the CORE Freedom Ride. Born into the family of a wealthy clothing wholesaler ralohPeck was a social outsider at Choate, an elite Connecticut prep school, in part because his family had only recently converted from Judaism to Episcopalianism.
At Harvard he quickly gained a reputation as a campus radical, shocking his classmates by bringing a black date to the freshman dance. Peck dropped out after the biovraphy of his freshman year, spending several years as galph expatriate in Europe and working as a merchant seaman.
Returning to the United States inPeck devoted himself to organizing work and journalism on behalf of pacifist and social justice causes. He spent almost three years in federal prison during World War II as a conscientious rev ralph abernathy biography. After his release from prison inhe rededicated himself to pacifism and militant trade unionism. In the late s, Peck became increasingly involved in issues of racial justice, joining the Congress of Racial Equality CORE as a volunteer.
On May 14, Peck assumed de facto leadership of the CORE Freedom Ride after James Farmer returned to Washington for his father's funeral. Peck was aebrnathy able to see a doctor at Jefferson Hillman Hospital, where he received 53 stitches. Undeterred by his injuries, he urged the riders to continue. James Peck passed away in Johnson Publishing Company Twenty-seven year-old Congress of Racial Equality Abernathu Field Secretary Joe Perkins hailed from Owensboro, KY.
The oldest of six children, he spent four years at Kentucky State University in Frankfort before enlisting for two years in the army in As a rev ralph abernathy biography student at the Abernatyh of Michigan, he demonstrated on behalf of the Southern sit-in movement to end lunch counter segregation.
Recruited by CORE in Augusthe gained a rev ralph abernathy biography as a bold and skillful organizer, rev ralph abernathy biography. Johnson Publishing Company The youngest member of the original Congress of Racial Equality CORE Freedom Ride, year-old Charles Person was a freshman at Atlanta's Morehouse College. Born and raised in Atlanta, Person had been surrounded by reminders of segregation throughout his life.
A gifted math and physics student who dreamed of a career as a scientist, he was refused admission to the all-white Georgia Institute of Technology. While at Morehouse, he became active in the Atlanta sit-in movement to integrate segregated lunch counters in early and was sentenced to 16 days in rev ralph abernathy biography as a result. After the Freedom Rides, Person joined the U. Marines in lateretiring after two decades of active service.
He lived in Cuba from Since returning to Georgia, he has worked in Atlanta's rev ralph abernathy biography schools as a technology supervisor. WGBH Nineteen-year-old Hank Thomas joined the Congress of Racial Equality CORE Freedom Ride at the last minute after his roommate John Moody dropped out with a bad case of the flu.
When you grow up and face this humiliation every day, there is no one thing. You always felt that way. Augustine, FL to attend Howard University in Washington, D. Biographhy being released on bail, he went on to participate in the July 14 New Jersey to Arkansas CORE Freedom Ride. On August 22, Thomas became the first Freedom Rider to appeal his conviction for breach of peace.
Following the Freedom Rides, Thomas served in the Vietnam War, returning home after being wounded in In recent years, Thomas has owned and operated several hotel and fast food restaurant franchises in the Atlanta metro region. WGBH A year-old Baptist minister from Howard, MO, the Reverend Cordy "C. One of the Civil Rights Movement's most respected and revered figures, he was named director of Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC affiliates inand later founded and led several civil rights organizations, including Vision, the National Anti-Klan Network, the Center of Democratic Renewal, and Black Action Strategies and Information Center BASIC.
As one of the two whites selected for the May 17 Nashville Movement Freedom Ride, he expected that he would be targeted for violence as a "race traitor. Photographs of a bloodied, beaten Zwerg made headlines around the world. We are prepared to die," Zwerg told reporters from his hospital bed in St. After the Freedom Rides, Zwerg worked as a United Church of Christ minister until Later, he worked as a personnel manager for IBM and at a hospice in Tucson, AZ, where he later retired.
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