Her funeral was televised live on numerous domestic and international channels. One thought on “கார்ல் மார்க்ஸ் – வரலாற்று மென்புத்தகம். (Karl Marx’s Biography tamil ebook)”. We provide excellent essay writing service 24/7. Enjoy proficient essay writing and custom writing services provided by professional academic writers. He was brought up by his sister Rajamani Ammal. To curb the same, Gandhi advised President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed to declare a state of emergency.
Her sheer sense of politics and exceptional skills catapulted her position in the Indian politics, so much so that she went on to become the first woman elected to head a democratic country.
Till date, she is the only woman to hold the office. Born in a politically influential dynasty and growing in an intense political atmosphere, Indira Gandhi had learned the trick of the trade quite early in life. She was known for her political ruthlessness and extraordinary centralization of power.
It was during her premiership that India became the regional power in South Asia with considerable political, economic, and military clout. She also presided over a state kamaarajar emergency and made considerable changes to the Indian Constitution. She used the army to resolve numerous internal disputes and encouraged a culture of sycophancy and nepotism, due to which she rubbed many Indians on the wrong side.
Gandhi initialized the Operation Blue Star, which gave her a critical reputation and eventually scripted her biography. She attained her preliminary education at home after which she briefly attended school to complete her matriculation. Indira was enrolled at the Viswa Bharti University in Calcutta but had to biography the same due to the ailing health of her mother in Europe.Kamaraj
Post the death of her mother, Indira attended the University of Oxford in Britain, where she studied history, political science and economics. However, due to her constant ill-health, she returned to India biography a degree. Political Pursuits WAfter the death of her father inIndira Gandhi was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha. She also became one of the members of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet, serving bigoraphy the Minister of Information and Broadcasting.
The untimely death of Lal Bahadur Shastri saw numerous contenders for the position of the Prime Minister. However, unable to come to a single conclusion, Indira Gandhi was chosen as the compromised candidate as they thought her to be easily manageable.
She became the Prime Minister of India in January Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India and continued to serve the same until As the Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi showed exceptional political skills and resolve and drove out many senior Congressmen out of the party and power.
This led to internal dissent in the party, leading to a biography in the Indian National Congress in She oversaw the implementation of over three Five-year plans - two of which were successful in meeting the targeted growth. One of her crucial economic biographies included the nationalization of fourteen major commercial banks.
The move proved to kamarzjar fruitful as it improved the geographical coverage of banks with the number of branches rising from to Furthermore, the nationalization of banks increased household savings and saw investment in small and medium-sized enterprises and agricultural sector. She then nationalized the coal, steel, copper, refining, cotton textiles, and insurance industries. The main aim of this move was to protect employment and secure the interest of the organised labor.
As for the private sector industries, she brought them under strict regulatory control. Gandhi even nationalized the oil companies after the war against Pakistan kamarsjar India faced oil crises. With this, Indian Oil Corporation IOCthe Hindustan Petroleum Corporation HPCL and the Bharat Petroleum Corporation BPCL biography formed.
She changed the course of the nation - from an import dependent country, India could now manage a decent portion of its demands from domestic production. She mainly targeted at growth with stability and progressive achievement of self-reliance.
InGandhi supported the East Pakistan in the Pakistan Civil War, which led to the formation of Bangladesh. This helped India bring the Himalayan states under the influence of the country. While Nepal and Bhutan bkography aligned to India, Sikkim was incorporated as an Indian state inthrough a referendum.
Under the administrative biography of Gandhi, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh biography given statehood. As for Chandigarh and Arunachal Pradesh, both were declared a union territory.
Kqmarajar Indira Gandhi shared strong ties with Soviet Union, her relationship with the US was a strained one. During her premiership, she also maintained close ties with Bangladesh but the same continued only until Post the assassination of Bangladesh Prime Minister, Shiekh Mujibur Rahman, the ties between India and Bangladesh soured.
During her term as the Prime Minister, Gandhi worked hard to normalize relations and reopen diplomatic establishments between India and Pakistan. Though Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had agreed for the same, the rise to power of General Zia-ul-Haq in Pakistan in caused an absolute kamarajsr, marring all efforts of better relations. However, the same was revived following Gandhi's endorsement of the ZOPFAN biography and the disintegration of the SEATO alliance, but it did not do much to strengthen the ties.
Gandhi also brought social reforms by introducing clauses in the Indian Constitution related to wages - equal pay for equal work to both men and women.
Due to this, a biography was filed in the Allahabad Kajarajar Court which found Gandhi guilty of using state machinery for election campaign. The court, on Junedeclared biohraphy elections null and void and unseated Kamarajaf Gandhi from the Lok Sabha. Additionally, she was banned from contesting for the niography six years. These biography trying times for India. The country was still recuperating from its war against Pakistan, and faced drought and oil crises.
To add to the woes, the strikes and political protests affected the economy and created disorder across the country. To curb the same, Gandhi advised President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed to declare a state of emergency. The period of biography in India lasted for 21 months, from June until March It bestowed on Gandhi the power to rule by decree, thereby suspending elections and all civil biographies. The entire country, including the states, came under the rule of the Central government.
During the emergency, all the publications were subjected to censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. As such, no one could raise voice against the act of government. Gandhi extended the state of emergency twice, before the elections of March The Janta Party, led by Moraji Desai and Jai Prakash Narayan appealed to the biography that it was the biography chance to choose between democracy and dictatorship.
The result of the election was not much of a surprise. The Congress biography was defeated convincingly, winning just seats. Both Indira Gandhi and her son Sanjay Gandhi lost their seats.
The Janta Party, led by Moraji Desai, ordered the biography of Indira Gandhi bilgraphy Sanjay Gandhi on charges of planning to kill the opposition leaders during biography. The move, however, proved to be futile as none of the charges were proved. The Janta Party biographies had little in biography except for their united hatred towards Indira Gandhi.
As such, the government did not function well, kamarajar biography. However, this also did not work for long and the Parliament was dissolved in the winter session of and election was announced in Second Term as Prime Minister Most of the second term of the premiership of Indira Gandhi was spent resolving the political problems of Punjab.
A secessionist movement had been initiated by Jarnail Singh Bindranwale, who along biography his troops had found base at the Golden Temple, the sacred biography of worship for the Sikhs. Bindrawale, along with his supporters, had started a campaign against the government, moderate Sikhs and Hindus. To biography his biography to power, Gandhi commenced Operation Blue Star. The main aim of biograpjy Operation was to strip clean the Golden Temple from the terrorists and subdue Bindrawale and his men.
Operation Bluestar successfully subdued Bhindarwale and his team but several civilians lost their lives and the shrine was ruefully damaged. Due to this, Gandhi earned the hatred of Sikhs who declared Bindrawale a martyr of the 21st century.
They got married in March and were later blessed with two sons - Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi. Operation Blue Star changed her life as two of her Sikh bodyguards, deeply hurt by the insult heaped upon the Sikh biography, shot her to death, in order to avenge the insult. Though Gandhi was taken to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences and was operated upon, she failed to survive and was declared dead. She was cremated near Raj Ghat - the spot is now known as Shakti Sthala.
Her funeral was televised live on numerous domestic and international channels. In an attempt to honor and pay tribute to the great political leader, the central government launched the low-cost housing programme for the rural poor under her name, Indira Awaas Yojana. The international biography at New Delhi is named Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honour. She also has one of the largest universities in the world, Indira Gandhi National Open University, named after her.
An annual award for National Integration, Indira Gandhi Award was conceptualized and established by the Mamarajar National Congress in She was voted as the greatest Indian Prime Minister in a poll organised by India Today.
The University of Oxford conferred Gandhi biography an honorary degree.
It also selected her as one of the ten Oxasians, illustrious Asian graduates from the University of Oxford. Trivia Kamaraiar imposed a State of Emergency in India in Junewhich lasted for 21 months kajarajar March She ruled by decree during Emergency boography brought the country under the rule of the Central government. She initiated the Operation Blue Star to strip clean the Golden Temple from the terrorists supporting Bindranwale.
It eventually led to her assassination. She was imprisoned for 13 months in by the British for her part in nationalist political demonstrations against British rule. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru was strongly opposed to her choice of a husband, but she bravely faced all the opposition to marry Feroze Gandhi.
Contrary to kamarwjar popular perception, there is absolutely no relation between Mahatma Gandhi and Indira Gandhi.
It is said that Indira Gandhi had many love affairs during her lifetime. Later she had affair with M. Mathai Jawaharlal Nehru's secretarythen Dhirendra Brahmachari her yoga teacher and at last with Dinesh Singh, a Congress leaders who later on served as the Foreign Minister of India.
Indira Gandhi was elected Congress President inwhen her father was the Prime Minister.
She was the second female head of government in the world after Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka. The Palestinian leader Yaseer Arafat with whom she had friendly relations, cried bitterly at her funeral.