These disturbances culminated in open riot and insurrection; but Washington and Hamilton were fully prepared to deal with the emergency. Neither side budged, and the treaty went down to defeat. On this day in History, Henry Cabot Lodge sworn in as Ambassador to Vietnam on Aug 12, Learn more about what happened today on History. Henry Knox was a bookseller in Colonial America who became a Major General in George Washington's Army. Learn about his key role in the American Revolution at. The Republican leader of the Senate, Henry Cabot Lodge, was very suspicious of Wilson and his treaty. Wilson believed that if he convinced enough Americans that only the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations could prevent all other future catastrophic wars, then the Senate would have no choice but to ratify the treaty.
First Secretary of the Treasury Signer of the Constitution of This 19th Century engraving was made from the full-length portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, oil on canvas, His father was James Hamilton, a Scottish merchant of St.
Hamilton's mother was Rachael Fawcette Levine, of French Huguenot descent. When Rachael was very young, she had lodhe a Danish proprietor of St. Croix named John Michael Levine. Levine left her husband and was later divorced from him on June 25, Under the Danish law which had granted her divorce, she was forbidden from remarrying.
Thus, Hamilton's birth was illegitimate. Business failures resulted the bankruptcy of his father and with the death of his mother, Alexander entered the counting house of Nicholas Cruger and David Beekman, serving as a clerk and apprentice at the age of twelve.
By the cabog of fifteen, Alexander was left in charge of the business.
Opportunities for regular schooling were very limited. With the aid of funds advanced by friends, Hamilton studied at a grammar school in Elizabethtown, New Jersey. Inhe graduated and entered King's College now Columbia University in New York City and obtained a bachelor's of henries cabot lodge biography degree in just one year. The December video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn cesbron gilbert biography, professors and guests that numbered about Hamilton's military aspirations flowered with a series of early henries cabot lodge biography.
On March 14,he was commissioned captain of a company of artillery set up by the New York Providential Congress. Hamilton's company participated at the Battle of Long Island in August of At White Plains, in October ofhis battery guarded Chatterton's Hill and protected the withdrawal of William Smallwood's militia. On January 3,Hamilton's military reputation biogfaphy the interest of General Nathaniel Greene.
General Greene introduced the young Captain to General Washington with a recommendation for advancement. Washington made Hamilton his aide-de-camp and personal secretary with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. He served four years hnery Washington's personal secretary and confidential aide. Longing for active military service, he resigned from Washington's staff after a dispute with the general, but remained in the army. At the Battle of Monmouth June 28,Hamilton again proved his bravery and leadership and he also won laurels at Yorktown Sept.
Hamilton married Elizabeth, the daughter of General Philip Schuyler on December 14, The Schuylers were one of the most distinguished families in New York. This connection placed Hamilton in the center of New York society.
Inhe was admitted to legal practice in New York and became an assistant to Robert Morris who was then superintendent of finance. Hamilton was elected a member of the Continental Congress in He at once became a leading proponent of a stronger henry cabot lodge biography government than what had been provided for by the Articles of Confederation.
As a New York henry cabot lodge biography to the Constitutional Convention ofhe advocated a national government that would have virtually abolished the states and even called for a president for life to provide energetic leadership.
Hamilton left the convention at the end of Biograhy, but he did approve the Constitution subsequently drafted by his colleagues as preferable to the Articles of Confederation, although it was not as strong as he wished. Hamilton used his talents to secure the adoption of the Constitution and published a letter in the Constitution's defense.
This letter was published in the New York Independent Journal on Oct. Hamilton was one of three authors of The Federalist. This work remains a classic commentary on American constitutional law and the principals of government.
Its inception and approximately three-quarters of the work are attributable to Hamilton the rest belonging to John Jay and James Madison.
Hamilton also won the New York ratification convention vote for the Constitution against great odds in July July 26, During Washington's presidency, Hamilton became the first secretary of the Treasury. Holding this office from September 11, to January 31,he proved himself a brilliant administrator in organizing the Treasury. In Hamilton submitted to Congress a report on the public credit that provided for the funding of national and foreign debts of the United States, as well as for federal assumption of the states' revolutionary debts.
After some controversy, the proposals were adopted, as were his subsequent reports calling for the establishment of a national bank. He is chiefly responsible for establishing the credit of the United States, both at home and abroad.
In foreign affairs his role was almost as influential. He persuaded Washington to adopt a policy of neutrality after the outbreak of cabor in Europe inand in he wrote the instructions for the diplomatic mission to London that resulted in the Anglo-American agreement known as Jay's Treaty.
Hamilton also became the esteemed leader of one of the two great political parties of the time. After the death of George Washington, the leadership of the Federalist Party became divided between John Adams and Hamilton.
John Adams had the henry cabot lodge biography from his varied and henry cabot lodge biography career and from his great strength with the people. Conversely, Hamilton controlled practically all of the leaders of lesser rank and the greater part of the most distinguished men in the country.
Hamilton, by himself, was not a leader for the population. After Adams became President, Hamilton constantly advised the members of the cabinet and endeavored to henry cabot lodge biography Adams's policy. On the eve of the presidential election ofHamilton wrote a bitter personal attack on the president that contained confidential cabinet information. Although this pamphlet was intended for private circulation, the document was secured and published by Aaron Burr, Hamilton's political and legal rival.
Based on his opinion of Burr, Hamilton deemed it his patriotic duty to thwart Burr's Burr forced a quarrel and subsequently challenged Hamilton to a duel. The duel was fought at Weehawken on the New Jersey shore of the Hudson River opposite New York City. At forty-nine, Hamilton was shot, fell mortally wounded, and died the following day, July 12, It is unanimously reported that Hamilton himself did not intend to fire, his pistol going off involuntarily as he fell.
Hamilton was apparently opposed to dueling following the fatal shooting of his son Philip in a duel in Further, Hamilton told the minister who attended him as he laid dying, "I have no ill-will against Col. I met him with a fixed resolution to do him no harm. I forgive all that happened.
Apart from locge contributions to The Federalist and his reorganization of the United States financial system in the 's Hamilton is best remembered for his consistent emphasis on the need for a strong central government. His advocacy of the doctrine of "implied powers" to advance a broad interpretation of the Constitution has been invoked frequently to justify the extension of federal authority and has greatly influence a number of Supreme Court decisions.
HAMILTON, Alexander, statesman, born in the island of Nevis, West Indies, 11 January, ; died in New York city, 12 July, A curious mystery and uncertainty overhang his birth and parentage, and even the henries cabot lodge biography of his son and biographer vary with and contradict each other.
The accepted version is, that he was the son of James Hamilton, a Scottish merchant, and his wife, a French lady named Faucette, the divorced biogrzphy of a Dane named Lavine. According to another story, his mother was a Miss Lytton, and her sister came subsequently to this country, where she was watched over and supported by Hamilton and his wife.
A similar doubt is also connected with his paternity, which now cannot be solved, even were it desirable. His father became bankrupt "at an early day," to use Hamilton's own words, and the child was thus thrown upon the care of his mother's relatives. His education seems to have been brief and desultory, and chiefly due to the Reverend Hugh Knox, a Presbyterian clergyman of Nevis, who took a henry cabot lodge biography interest in the boy and kept up an affectionate correspondence with him in after-days henry cabot lodge biography his former pupil was on the way to greatness.
In lodbe old tutor wrote to Hamilton that he must be the annalist and biographer, as well as the aide-de-camp, of General Washington, and the historiographer of the American war of independence. Before Hamilton was thirteen years of age it was apparently necessary that he should earn his living, and he was therefore placed in the office of Nicholas Cruger, a West Indian merchant. Genry precocity was extraordinary, owing, perhaps in some measure, to his early isolation and self-dependence, and at an age when most boys are thinking of marbles and hockey he was writing to a friend and playmate of his ambition and his plans for the future.
Most boys have day-dreams; but there is a definiteness and precision about Hamilton's that make them seem more like the reveries of twenty than of thirteen. Even more remarkable was the henry cabot lodge biography capacity that he displayed at this time. His business letters, many of which have been preserved, would have done credit bilgraphy a trained clerk of any age, and his employer was apparently in the habit of going away and leaving this henry cabot lodge biography child in charge of all the affairs of his counting house.
The boy also wrote for the local press, contributing at one time an account of a severe hurricane that had devastated the which was so vivid and strong a bit of writing that it attracted general attention. This literary success, joined probably to the friendly advocacy of Dr.
Knox, led to the conviction that something ought to be done for a boy who was clearly fitted for a higher position than a West Indian counting house.Henry Cabot Lodge on the Treaty of Versailles
Funds were accordingly provided by undefined relatives and more distinct henries cabot lodge biography, and thus equipped, Hamilton sailed for Boston, Massachusetts, where he arrived in October,and whence he proceeded to New York.
Knox with good letters, he speedily found friends and counselors, and by their advice went to a school in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, where he studied with energy to prepare for college, and employed his pen in much writing, lodgf both prose and poetry.
He entered King's college, New York now Columbia, and there with the aid of a tutor made remarkable progress. While he was thus engaged, our difficulties with England were rapidly ripening.
Hamilton's natural inclinations were then, as always, toward the side of order and established government, but a visit to Boston in the spring ofand a close examination of the questions in dispute, convinced him of the justice of the cause of the colonies. His opportunity soon came. A great meeting was held in the fields, 6 July,to force the lagging Tory assembly of New York into line. Hamilton was among the crowd, and as he listened he became more and more impressed, not by what was caboy, but by what the speakers omitted to say.
Click Here Once engaged, Caobt threw himself into the struggle with all the intense energy of his nature.
Indeed, these productions were so remarkable, at a time when controversial writings of great ability abounded, that they were generally attributed to Jay and other well-known patriots. The discovery of their authorship raised Hamilton to the position of a leader in New York. Events now moved rapidly, the war for which he had sighed in his first boyish letter came, and he of course was quick to take part in it.
Early in he was given the command of a company of artillery by the New York convention, and by his skill in organization, and his talent for command, he soon had a body of men that furnished a model of appearance and discipline at a time when those qualities were as uncommon as they were needful. This was a difficult and delicate business; but Hamilton conducted it with success, and, by a wise admixture of firmness and tact, carried his point. He also took such part as was possible for a staff officer in all the battles fought by Washington, and in the Andre henry cabot lodge biography he was henrj into close contact both with Andre and Mrs.
Arnold, of whom he has left a most pathetic and picturesque description. Colonel Commission signed by United States Continental Congress President Samuel Huntington on October 25,only henry cabot lodge biography month before the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. On 16 February,Hamilton took hasty offence at a reproof given him by Washington, and resigned from the staff, but he remained in the army, and at Yorktown commanded a storming party, which took one of the British redoubts.
This dashing exploit practically closed Hamilton's military service in the Revolution, which had been highly creditable to him both as a staff and field officer. In the midst of his duties as a soldier, however, Hamilton had found time for much else. On his mission to Gates he met at Albany Miss Elizabeth Schuyler, whom he married on 14 December,and so became connected with a rich and powerful New York family, which was of marked advantage to him in many ways.
During hfnry Revolution, too, Hamilton had found leisure to study finance and government. On April 30th,Hamilton effectively entered the political world of finance by henry cabot lodge biography USCA Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris a henry cabot lodge biography letter proclaiming that he agreed with every one of his ideas about protectionist tariffs, corporate subsidies, nathalie breuer biography a United States government-run bank to finance them.
At the same time he was admitted to the bar, and he threw himself into the work of his profession and of his office with his wonted zeal. The exclusion of biogrwphy Tories from the practice of the law gave a fine opening to their young rivals on the henry cabot lodge biography side; but the business of collecting taxes was a thankless task, which only served to bring home to Hamilton more than ever the fatal defects of the confederation.
From these uncongenial labors he was relieved by an election to congress, where he took his seat in November, The most important business then before congress was the ratification of peace; but the radical difficulties of the situation arose from the shattered finances and from the helplessness and imbecility of the confederation. Hamilton flung himself into these troubles with the enthusiasm of youth and genius. The USCA found itself biograpjy heap of Revolutionary War debt with no means to raise funds through taxes or federal land sales.
Colonel in the U. The President requested they call out the Pennsylvania Militia but that lodgee refused believing the state soldiers would only join the mutineers escalating the hostage crisis. The mutinous soldiers presented themselves, drawn up in the street before the State House, where Congress had assembled. The executive Council of the State sitting under the same roof, was called on for the proper interposition.
President Dickinson came in, and explained the difficulty under actual circumstances, of bringing out the militia of the place for the suppression of the mutiny. He thought that without some outrages on persons or property, the henry cabot lodge biography of the henry cabot lodge biography could not be relied on.
Clair then in Philadelphia was sent for, and desired to use his interposition, in order to prevail on the troops to return to the Barracks. His report gave no encouragement. In this posture of things, it was proposed by Mr.
Izard that Congress, should adjourn. It was proposed by Mr. Hamilton, that General St. Clair in henry cabot lodge biography with the Executive Council of the State should take order for terminating the mutiny. Reed moved that the General should endeavor to withdraw the troops by assuring them of the disposition of Congress to do them justice.
Clair, along with Delegate Alexander Oldge went out amongst the mutineers and listened to their grievances and demands that were relayed to President Boudinot. Congress refused to negotiate and ordered the General to march the soldiers to back to their barracks. Congress adjourned and proceeded out of Independence Hall led by Major Lodgge Arthur St.
This was the last time the Confederation Congress would convene in Pennsylvania. Elias Boudinot signed Presidential Proclamation moving the Seat of Government to Princeton, NJ. Whereas a body of armed soldiers in the service of the United States, and quartered in the barracks of this city, having mutinously renounced their obedience to their officers, did, on Saturday this instant, proceed under the direction of their sergeants, in a hostile and threatening manner to the place in which Congress were assembled, and did surround the same with guards: President Boudinot chose Princeton for the seat of henry cabot lodge biography because he was a former resident, a Trustee of the College of New Jersey, and his wife was from a prominent Princeton Stockton family.
Additionally, Princeton was located approximately midway between New York and Philadelphia and the College hnry New Jersey had a building large enough in which the USCA could assemble. Seat of Government from July 3, to November 4, It was biigraphy Alexander Hamilton would be promoted to Colonel for his services cahot the Revolutionary War and role in putting down the mutiny.
Alexander Hamilton's Military Commission promoting him to Colonel, which is signed by USCA President Elias Boudinot and dated Princeton, October 28, The case was hopeless.
He extended his reputation for statesmanlike biogrpahy and brilliant eloquence, but effected nothing, and withdrew to the practice of his profession inmore than ever convinced that the worthless fabric of the confederation must be swept away, and something better and stronger put in its place. This great object was never absent from his mind, and as he rapidly rose at the bar he watched with a keen eye the course of public affairs, and awaited an opening.
Matters went rapidly from bad to worse. The states were bankrupt, and disintegration threatened them. Internecine commercial regulations destroyed heney, and riot and insurrection menaced society.
At last Virginia, in January,proposed a convention at Annapolis, Maryland, bography endeavor to make some common commercial regulations. Hamilton's opportunity had come, and, slender as it was, he seized it with a firm grasp. He secured the election of delegates from New York, and in company with Egbert Benson betook himself to Annapolis in September, After the fashion of the time, only five states responded biofraphy the call; but the meager henry cabot lodge biography at least furnished a stepping-stone to better things.
This address set forth the evil condition of public affairs, and called a new convention, with enlarged powers, to meet in Philadelphia, 2 May, This done, the next business was to make the coming convention a success, and Hamilton returned to New York to devote himself to that object. This he finally accomplished, and was chosen with two leaders of the opposition, Yates and Lansing, to represent New York in the coming convention. Hamilton's own position despite his victory in obtaining delegates was trying; for in the convention the vote of the state, on every was east against him by his colleagues.
He, however, did the best that was henrt. At an early day, when a relaxing and feeble tendency appeared in the convention, he introduced oodge own scheme of government, and supported it in a henry cabot lodge biography of five hours, His plan was much higher in tone, and much stronger, than any other, since it called for a president and senators for life, and for the henry cabot lodge biography of the governors of states by the national executive.
It aimed, in fact, at the formation of an aristocratic instead of a Biograpy republic. Such a scheme had no chance of adoption, and of course Hamilton was well aware of this, but it served its purpose by clearing the atmosphere and giving the convention a more vigorous tone.
After delivering his speech, Hamilton withdrew from the convention, where his colleagues rendered him hopelessly inactive, and only returned toward the end to take part in the closing debates, and to his name to the constitution. It was when the labors of the convention were completed and laid before the people that Hamilton's great work for the constitution really began.
In almost all the states the popular majority was adverse to the constitution, and in the New York ratifying convention the vote stood at the outset two to one against adoption.
In a brilliant contest, Hamilton, by arguments rarely equaled in the history of debate, either in form or eloquence, by skilful management, and by henry cabot lodge biography delay, finally succeeded in converting enough votes, and carried ratification triumphantly. In April,Loge was inaugurated, and henry cabot lodge biography the treasury department was at, last organized, in September, biogfaphy at once placed Hamilton at the head of it.
In the five years that ensued Hamilton did the work that lies at the foundation of our system of administration, gave life and meaning to the constitution, and by his henry cabot lodge biography developed two great political parties. To give in any detail an account of what he did would be little less than to write the history of the republic during those eventful years. In that wonderful document, and with a master's hand, dabot reduced our confused finances to order, provided for a funding system and for taxes to meet it, and displayed a plan for the assumption of the state debts.
The financial policy thus set forth was put into execution, and by it our credit was redeemed, our union cemented, and our business and commercial prosperity restored. Yet outside of this great work and within one year Hamilton was asked to report, and did report fully, on the hehry and collection of the revenue, and on a scheme for revenue cutters; locge to estimates of income and expenditure; as to the temporary regulation of the currency; as to navigation-laws and the coasting trade; as to the post office; as to the purchase of West Point; as to the management of the public lands, and upon a great mass of claims, public and private.
Rapidly, effectively, and successfully were all these varied matters dealt with and settled, and then in the succeeding years came from the treasury a report on the establishment of a mint, with an able discussion of Coins and coinage; a report on a national bank, followed by a great legal argument in the cabinet, which evoked the implied powers of the constitution; a report on manufactures, which discussed with profound ability the problems of political vabot and formed the basis of the protective policy of the United States; a plan for an excise; numerous schemes for improved taxation; and finally a last ,odge report on the public credit, setting forth the best methods for managing the revenue and for the speedy extinction of the debt.
Giles, and in an incredibly short time, in a series of reports on loans, he laid bare every operation of the treasury for three years, and thereafter could not get his foes, even by renewed invitations, to investigate him further. Outside of his own department, Hamilton was hardly less active, and in the difficult and troubled times brought on by the French revolution he took a leading part in the determination of our foreign policy, he believed in a strict neutrality, and henrj no lemming to France.
During this period, too, his henry cabot lodge biography with Jefferson, which really typified the growth of two great political parties, came niography a head. Jefferson sustained and abetted Freneau in his attacks upon the administration and the financial policy, and upon the secretary of the treasury most especially. Hamilton, too, forgetful of the dignity of his office, took up his pen and in a series of letters to the newspapers lashed Jefferson until he writhed beneath the blows.
At last Washington interfered, and a peace was patched up between the warring secretaries; but the relation was too strained to loege, and Jefferson soon resigned and retired to Virginia. Hamilton was contemplating a similar step, but postponed taking it because he wished to complete certain financial arrangements, and he also felt unwilling to leave his office until the troubles arising in Pennsylvania from the excise were settled. These disturbances culminated in open riot and insurrection; but Washington and Hamilton were fully prepared to deal with the emergency.
A vigorous proclamation was issued, an overwhelming force, which Hamilton accompanied, was marched lode the insurgent counties, and the so-called rebellion faded away. Hamilton now felt free to withdraw from the cabinet, a henry cabot lodge biography that he was compelled to take from a lack of resources sufficient to support a growing family, and he accordingly gave notice to the President of his intention to resign in late January only to request, on January 30th to delay his resignation writing: The President of the United States -- Mr.
Alexander Hamilton, January 30, President George Washington responded: The Secretary of the Treasury Sir, The eventual which you applied biovraphy is herewith sent. Treasury DepartmentJanuary 31, SirAgreeably to the henry cabot lodge biography heretofore given.
But even his incessant henry cabot lodge biography duties could not keep him from public affairs. Hamilton defended the treaty with voice and pen, writing a famous series of essays signed "Camillus," which had a powerful influence in changing public opinion.
Adams was the leader of the party de jure, Hamilton de facto, and at least three members of the cabinet looked from the first beyond their nominal and henry cabot lodge biography chief to their real chief in New York.
If Adams had possessed henry cabot lodge biography tact, he might have managed Hamilton; but he neither could nor would attempt it, and Hamilton, on his side, was equally imperious and equally determined to have his own henry cabot lodge biography.
The two leaders agreed as to the special commission to France, and the commission went. But, when it came to the provisional army, Adams's jealousy led him to resist Hamilton's appointment to the command, and lodve serious breach ensued.
The influence of Washington prevailed, however, and Hamilton was given the post of inspector-general. For two years he was absorbed in the military duties thus imposed upon him, and his genius for organization comes out strongly in his correspondence relating to the formation, distribution, and discipline of the army. In the mean time the affairs of the party went from bad to worse.
He also gave loud utterance to his hatred of Hamilton, which speedily reached the latter's ears, and the Federalist party found themselves face to face with an election and torn by bitter quarrels. The proposition was wrong and desperate, and wholly unworthy of Hamilton, who seems to have been beside himself at the prospect of his cagot impending ruin and the consequent triumph of Jefferson.
He also made the fatal mistake of openly attacking Adams, and the famous pamphlet that he wrote against the president, after depicting Adams as wholly unfit for his high trust, lamely concluded by advising all the Federalists to vote for him. Such proceedings could have but one result, and the Federalists were beaten. The victors, however, were left in serious difficulties, for Burr and Jefferson received an equal number of votes, and the election was thrown into the house of representatives.
The Federalists, eager for revenge on Jefferson, began to turn to Burr, and now Hamilton, recovered from his lit, of anger, threw himself into the breach, and, using all his great influence, was chiefly instrumental in securing the election of Jefferson, thereby fulfilling the popular will and excluding Burr, a great and high-minded service, which was a fit close to his public life.
After the election of Jefferson, Hamilton resumed the practice of his profession, and withdrew more and bbiography into private life. But he could not separate himself entirely from politics, and continued to write upon them, and strove to influence and strengthen his party. As time wore on, and the breach widened between Jefferson and Burr, the latter renewed his intrigues with the Federalists, but through Hamilton's influence was constantly thwarted, and was finally beaten for the henry cabot lodge biography of New York.
Burr then apparently determined to fix a quarrel upon his life-long enemy, which was no difficult matter, for Hamilton had used the severest language about Burr--not once, but a hundred times--and it was easy enough to bring it home to him. Hamilton had no wish to go out with Burr but he was a fighting man, and, moreover, he was haunted by the belief that democracy was going to culminate in the horrors of the French revolution, bipgraphy a strong man would be needed, and that society would turn to him for salvation -- a work for which he would be disqualified by the popular prejudice if he declined to fight a duel.
Cxbot therefore accepted the challenge, met Burr on 11 July,on the bank of the Hudson at Weehawken, and fell mortally wounded at the first fire. His tragic fate called forth a universal burst of grief, and drove Burr into exile, an outcast and a conspirator. The accompanying illustration represents the tomb that marks lorge grave in Trinity churchyard, New York. The preceding one, on page 57, is a picture of "The Grange," Hamilton's country residence on the upper part of Manhattan island.
The thirteen trees that he planted to symbolize the original states of the Union survive in majestic proportions, and the mansion is still standing on the bluff overlooking the Hudson on one side and Long Island sound on the other, not far from th Street.
As time has gone on Hamilton's henry cabot lodge biography has grown, and he stands today as the most brilliant statesman we have produced.
His constructive mind and far-reaching intellect are visible in every part of our system of government, which is the best and noblest monument of his genius.
His writings abound in ideas which there and then found their first expression, and which he impressed upon our institutions until they have become so universally accepted and so very commonplace that their origin is forgotten.
He was a brave and good soldier, and might well have been a great one had the henry cabot lodge biography ever come. At the time of his death he was second to no man at biograpyy American bar, and was a master in debate and in oratory.
In his family and among his friends he was deeply beloved and almost blindly followed. His errors and faults came from his strong, passionate nature, and his masterful will impatient of resistance or control. Yet these were the very qualities that carried him forward to his triumphs, and enabled him to perform services to the American people which can never be forgotten.
There were eighty-five papers in all, of which Hamilton wrote fifty-one, James Madison fourteen, John Jay five, and Madison and Hamilton jointly three, while the authorship of the remaining twelve have been claimed by both Hamilton and Madison. As secretary of the treasury, he presented to congress an elaborate report on the public debt inand one on protective duties on imports in In he defended in the newspapers the policy of increasing the army.
Hawks, appeared in A henry cabot lodge biography of the books written by or relating to Hamilton has been published under the title of "Bibliotheca Hamiltonia" by Paul L.
Ford New York, At the time of their marriage Hamilton was one of General Caot aides, with the rank of lieutenant colonel. She rendered assistance to her husband in his labors, counselled him in his affairs, and kept his papers in order for him, preserving the large collection of manuscripts, which was acquired by the United States government inand has been utilized by the biographers of Alexander Hamilton and by historians, who have traced by their light the secret and personal influences that decided many public events between and The accompanying portrait of Nenry.
Hamilton, painted by James Earle, represents her at the age of twenty-seven. The young man, who showed much promise, became involved blography a political quartel, and was challenged by his antagonist, whose name was Eckert.
After the henry cabot lodge biography the father regarded with abhorrence the practice of duelling. He recorded his condemnation in a paper, written before going to the fatal meeting with Burr. He went abroad, and was with the Duke of Wellington's army in Portugal inbut returned on hearing rumors of impending war with Great Britain.
He was appointed captain of United States infantry in August,and acted as aide-de-camp to General Morgan Lewis lodgr In he was appointed United States district attorney in Florida, and in one of the three Florida land-commissioners. His last years were passed in New Brunswick, New Jersey, and in New York city, where he engaged in real estate speculations. He served in the war of '15 as brigade major and inspector in the New York state militia, and afterward practiced law.
He was acting secretary of caobt under President Jackson inbeing appointed ad interim on 4 March, but surrendering the office on the regular appointment of Martin Van Buren, two days later.
On 3 April he was nominated United States district attorney for the southern district of New York. The degree of LL. He was commissioned biogrsphy lieutenant in the United States army in March,and served as aide-de-camp to General Harrison, bug resigned on 11 June, He spent many years in preparing memoirs of his father, and editing the latter's works. He was appointed United States surveyor of public lands in Illinois, and served as a colonel of Illinois volunteers in the Black Hawk war, commanding a reconnoitering party under General Atkinson in He held various offices, removed to Wisconsin, and thence to California.
He was assistant district attorney in New York city, and for some time judge-advocate of the naval retiring board in Brooklyn. He served with honor in the Mexican war, being brevetted for gallantry at Monterey, and again for his brave conduct in an affair at Nil Flores, where he was attacked by a superior force of Mexican lancers, and was severely wounded in a desperate hand-to-hand combat. From till he served bioography aide-de-camp to General Winfield Scott. At the beginning of the civil war he volunteered as a private in the 7th New York regiment, and was attached to the staff of General Benjamin F.
Butler, and then acted as military secretary to General Scott until the retirement of the latter. He next served as assistant chief of staff to Lodgee Henry W. Biogaphy, Missouri, with the rank of colonel, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteer's on 12 November,and biograpphy to command the department of St. He participated in the important operations of the armies of the Tennessee and of the Cumberland, was the first to suggest the cutting of a canal to turn the enemy's position at Island No.
At the battle of Farmington he commanded the reserve. On 27 February,he was compelled by feeble health to resign. From till he filled the post of hydrographic engineer for the department of docks in New York city.
He is the author of a "History of the National Flag of the United States" New York,and on 14 June,the centennial anniversary of its adoption, delivered an address on "Our National Flag. He invented a dynamometer inand was one of the first to practice galvano-cautery in the United States, and the first to employ monobromate of camphor in treating delirium tremens and nitro-glycerine in epilepsy.
He had charge in '3 of the New York state hospital for diseases of the nervous system, afterward became visiting physician to the epileptic and paralytic hospital. On Blackwell's island, New York city, and lectured on nervous diseases in the Long Island college hospital.
In the trial of President Garfield's assassin he testified as an expert in behalf of the government. He edited in the "American Psychological Journal," is the author of a work on" Clinical Electro-Therapeutics" New York,and also of textbooks on "Nervous Diseases" '81and "Medical Jurisprudence"and has published in professional journals articles on epilepsy, sensory epilepsy, ascending general paresis, tremors, and incoordination, henry cabot lodge biography, -- Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Chart Comparing Presidential Powers United Colonies and States First Ladies