The final solution That night, Big Foot and his people camped while being surrounded on all sides by well-armed soldiers. The bodies froze into grotesque shapes, and when the Army unit of civilians came back to bury them, they stacked the bodies like cordwood in wagons and dumped them, men, women, and children, together into mass graves. Chief Spotted Elk (Big Foot) was a follower of the Ghost Dance, and, as the religion demanded, he was a man of peace, a respected leader who cared for his people. Chief Spotted Elk (Character) on IMDb: Movies, TV, Celebs, and more. I handed a cup of water to the old woman telling her 'give it to the child' who grabbed it as if parched with thirst, and as she swallowed it hurriedly, I saw it gush right out again, a blood stained stream through a hole in her neck.
He was the son of Lone Horn. Spotted Elk became chief spotted elk biography of the Minneconjou after the death of his father in Native accounts of Spotted Elk describe him as a great hunter.
He was also a skilled horseman who possessed a string of fine ponies, most often obtained from the Crow or other enemies. He was best known, however, for his political and diplomatic successes.
An able negotiator, Spotted Elk was skilled at settling quarrels between rival parties and was often in great demand among other Teton bands. After the Sioux War for the Black Hills inthe Minneconjou were placed on the Cheyenne River Reservation in South Dakota.
Being a person accustomed to finding ways of reconciling disparate views, Spotted Elk sought means to adapt to white ways. According to Native accounts, Spotted Elk was among the first American Indians to raise corn in accordance with government standards. Moreover, he traveled to Washington, D. While the Indian Bureau tentatively agreed, the matter was set aside and eventually forgotten. In Kicking Bear introduced the Ghost Dance religion to the Minneconjou. It was believed that the Ghost Dance would restore the world to its aboriginal state; it promised for the return of Native ancestors and all plant and animal life.
Devastated by war, hunger, and disease, the Minneconjou welcomed the new religion.
While their dancing never became violent, several chief spotted elk biography Sioux, who were angered by the prohibition of the Sun Dance and other "barbarous" customs by the Secretary of the Interior as well as the reduction of Sioux holdings to six chief spotted elk biography reservations, turned the Ghost Dance into a movement advocating violence against their white oppressors.
Office of Indian Affairs outlawed the Ghost Dance in Later that same year, Spotted Elk and his followers moved to Cherry Creek where they had planned on joining Chief Hump and his band of Minneconjou in their dancing. The latter, however, defected and surrendered his band to the agency on December 9, Disillusioned, Spotted Elk and his tribe moved back to their camp below the forks of the Cheyenne River.
While he did not participate in the Ghost Dance thereafter, many of his tribesmen continued to dance, spurred on by the medicine man Yellow Bird. On December 15,the Standing Rock Reservation police killed Sitting Bull over a dispute regarding the Ghost Dance ceremony.
After hearing of Sitting Bull's death, Spotted Elk decided to migrate to the Pine Ridge Reservation. On December 28, the Minneconjou were intercepted by an chief spotted elk biography detachment chief spotted elk biography the command of Major Samuel Whitside.
Spotted Elk, who was suffering from pneumonia at the time, ordered his band's surrender. His tribe was then escorted to Wounded Knee Creek where they set up camp.
Shortly thereafter, Colonel James Forsyth arrived and assumed command of the situation. On the morning of December 29, when the colonel ordered the tribe to surrender their weapons, a fight erupted in which Spotted Elk and nearly Sioux men, women, and children were killed, along with 25 soldiers. Hyde, George, A Sioux Chronicle, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, From the View Point of the Sioux, Rapid City, South Dakota, Fenske Printing, Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk, They Led a Nation: The Sioux Chiefs, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Brevet Press, Waldman, Carl, Who Was Who in Native American History, New York, Facts on File,The Great Sioux Nation