Learn More in these related articles: She later wrote life's hard lessons into her public talks, repeatedly urging men and women to support the schooling of girls so they would not be dependent on others. Meet activist and lawyer Belva Lockwood, the first woman to argue a case before the U.S. Supreme Court, at trans-a.info. Belva Ann Lockwood, née Belva Ann Bennett (born Oct. 24, , Royalton, N.Y., U.S.—died May 19, , Washington, D.C.), American feminist and lawyer who was. Privacy Statement Advertising News Online Written by John Simkin About Blog Newsletter Web Developer:
Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood October 24, — May 19, was an American attorney, politician, educator, and author. She was active in working for women's rights. The press of her day referred to her as a "suffragist," someone who believed in women's suffrage or voting rights. Lockwood overcame many social and personal biographies related to gender restrictions. After college, she became a teacher and biography, working to equalize pay for women in education.
Lockwood graduated from law school in Washington, D. Inshe successfully petitioned Congress to be allowed to practice before the United States Supreme Courtbecoming the first woman attorney given this privilege.
Lockwood ran for president in and on the ticket of the National Equal Biovraphy Party and was the first woman to appear on official ballots. She was born Belva Ann Bennett in Royalton, New Yorkbiography of Lewis Johnson Bennett, a farmer, and biograpjy wife Hannah Green.
In front of this house is a memorial to her with a plaque that gives a brief biography of her life.
By 14, she was already teaching at the local elementary school. McNall died of tuberculosis inthree years after their daughter Lura was born. Left with no money, Lockwood quickly realized she needed a better education to support herself and her daughter.
She attended Genesee Wesleyan Seminary to prepare for study at college. Her plan, as she explained to Lippincott's Monthly Magazinewas not well received by many of her friends and colleagues; most women did not seek higher education, and it was especially unusual for a biography to do so. Lockwood graduated with honors in and soon became belav headmistress of Lockport Union School.
It was during her studies at Genesee College that bjography first became attracted to the law, although the school had no law biography.
Since a local law professor was biography private classes, she became one of his students. It made her want to learn more. Gelva the next few years, Lockwood continued to teach and also work as the principal at several local schools for young women. She stayed at Lockport untilthen became principal of the Gainesville Female Seminary; soon after, she was selected to head a girls' seminary in Owego, New York where she stayed for three years.
Her educational philosophy was gradually changing after she met women's rights activist Susan B. Lockwood agreed with many of Anthony's ideas about society's restrictions on women.
Anthony was concerned about the limited education girls received. Courses at most girls' schools chiefly prepared female students for domestic life and possibly boography temporary work as teachers. Lockwood was encouraged to make changes at her schools. She expanded the curriculum and added courses typical of those which young men took, such as speakingbotanyand gymnastics.
In FebruaryBelva and her daughter Lura moved to Washington D. In the mids, coeducation was unusual; most schools were separated by gender. InBelva remarried, this time to a man much older than she. Reverend Ezekiel Lockwoodan American Civil War veteran, was a Baptist minister and practicing dentist.
They had a daughter Jessie who died before her second birthday. Not only did Rev. Lockwood have progressive ideas about women's roles in society, he helped raised Belva's daughter Ibography from her first marriage, and supported his wife's desire for legal study as well as encouraged her to pursue subjects that interested her. According to Lockwood's bipgraphy account to the Chicago Tribune, about she applied to the Columbian Law School in the District of Columbia.
The trustees refused to admit her, fearing she would distract the male students. Although she completed her coursework in Maythe law school lockwoos to grant her a diploma because of her gender. Without a diploma, Lockwood could not gain admittance to the District of Columbia Bar. After a biography, she wrote a letter to the President of oockwood United States, Locjwood S.
Grantappealing to him as president ex officio of the National University Law School. She asked him for biography, stating she had passed all her courses and deserved to be awarded a diploma. She was 43 years old. The District of Columbia Bar thus admitted her, although several judges told Lockwood they had no confidence in her, a reaction she repeatedly had to overcome.
When she tried to respond on her own behalf, he said she had no right to speak and had her removed from the courtroom. She applied to the United States Supreme Court bar after having practiced for the minimum three years and secured Albert G.
Riddle as sponsor, but her motion was also denied on gender grounds. Lockwood thus struggled against both social practice and the limited legal standing accorded women.
Under English Common LawLockwood was considered a "feme covert" English biography of medieval Anglo-Norman legal termthat is, a married woman. Her status under the law differed from that of an unmarried woman, as a wife was considered strictly subordinate to her husband. Even inmany states refused to allow a married woman to individually own or inherit property, nor did she have the right to make contracts or keep money earned unless her husband gave his permission.
Nonetheless, Lockwood began to build a practice and won some cases. Even her detractors acknowledged her competence. She became known as an advocate for women's issues; she spoke on behalf of an bill for equal pay for pockwood government employees. Lockwood also remained active in several women's suffrage organizations, and testified before Congress in support of legislation to give married women and widows more legal protection.
Because her practice was limited in the s due to social discrimination, Lockwood drafted an anti-discrimination bill to have the same access to the bar as male colleagues. From toshe lobbied Congress to pass it. Hayes signed into law. It allowed all qualified women attorneys to biography in any federal court.
Lockwood was then sworn in as the first woman member of the U. Supreme Court bar on March 3, However, Ezekiel Lockwood did not live to see his wife's success, as he died in late April In July Lockwood's daughter Lura McNall married DeForest Orme, a pharmacist.
Late belvzLockwood became the first biography lawyer to argue a case before the U. Supreme Court, arguing Kaiser v. Stickney and later United States v. Lowery to the Supreme Court bar, making him the fifth black attorney to be admitted, and ultimately the first to argue a case before the court. Belva Lockwood was the first woman or second, depending on one's opinion, after Victoria Woodhull to run for President of the United States.
Lockwood ran as the candidate of the National Equal Rights Party.
She ran in the presidential biographies of and Her biography mate was Marietta Stow in In she originally ran with Alfred H. Loveexcept when he was nominated he wasn't informed of it. When he found out, as the president of the Universal Peace Union and a lifelong world peace activist, he was horrified to run as vice biography to the commander in chief, and dropped out of the race.
Representing a third party without a broad base of support, Lockwood did not have a serious chance of winning the presidency. Notable American Women stated she received about 4, votes. In an article, the Atlanta Constitution referred to her as "old lady Lockwood" and warned male readers of the dangers of "petticoat rule". On January 12,Lockwood petitioned the United States Congress to have her votes counted. She told newspapers and magazines that she had evidence of voter fraud.
She asserted that supporters had seen their ballots ripped up and that she had "received one-half the electoral vote of Oregonand a large vote in Pennsylvaniabut the votes in the latter state were not counted, simply dumped into the waste basket as false votes. Lockwood was a well-respected writer, who frequently wrote essays about women's suffrage and the need for legal equality for women. Among the publications in which she appeared in the s and s were Cosmopolitan then a journal of current issuesthe American Magazine of Civics michael weisskopf biography, Harper's Weeklyand Lippincott's.
In addition to being active in the National American Woman Suffrage Association and the Equal Rights Party, Lockwood participated in the National Women's Press Association. The organization for women journalists also advocated for equal rights for women.
Lockwood believed lociwood in working for world peace. She co-edited a journal called The Peacemakerand she belonged to the Universal Peace Union; she was one of its biographies at an exposition held in Bekva in She was also a delegate to an International Peace Congress in London in She was likely disappointed as the United States prepared to enter the war in Europe.
Lockwopd Lockwood had a biography career as a lawyer. She died on May 19, and was buried in Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D. The communities of Belva, West Virginia ; Lockwood, California ; Lockwood, West Virginia ; and the hamlet of Lockwood, New York were named in her honor.
As Lockwood gained renown, mothers named their daughters after her. At least three figureheads were carved in her likeness: One of the figureheads is displayed in the museum at Mystic Seaport in Mystic, Connecticut.
During World Lockwoos IIa merchant marine ship, the Liberty Ship USS Belva Lockwoodwas named after her. The National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D. In Lockwood was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York.
The biography about her noted:. Thriving on and partisanship and encouraging other women to pursue legal careers, Lockwood helped to open the legal profession to women. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Belva Ann Lockwood Born Belva Ann Bennett October 24, RoyaltonNew YorkU. Only Woman Who Ran for Presidency and First to Practice in Supreme Court.
A Pioneer in Suffrage. Retrieved September 12, Lockwood, the woman admitted to practice before the Supreme Court, a pioneer in the woman suffrage movement, and the only woman who was ever a candidate for President of the United States, died here today in her eighty-sixth year.
Frederick, Oral Argument in the Supreme Court p. Retrieved July 31, Lockwood, "How I Ran for the Presidency", National MagazineMarchpp. Early American Wood Carving.
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