what are some physical properties of fluorine
Bulk modulus A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance. Fluorine will melt at

In other words, as you go down the Group, the elements become less electronegative. The first electron affinity is the energy released when 1 mole of gaseous atoms each acquire an electron to form 1 mole of gaseous 1- ions.

what are some physical properties of fluorine

First electron affinities have negative values. For example, the first electron affinity of chlorine is kJ mol By convention, the negative sign shows a release of energy. You will find electron affinity covered in detail in another part of this site. The current page duplicates much of that material, but you might like to read it again in different words.

what are some physical properties of fluorine

Notice that the trend down the Group isn't tidy. The tendency is for the fluorine affinities to decrease in the sense that less heat is given outbut the fluorine value is out of line. The electron affinity is a measure of the attraction between the incoming electron and the nucleus. The higher the attraction, the higher the electron affinity. As the atom gets bigger, the incoming electron is further from the nucleus and so feels less attraction.

The electron affinity therefore falls as you go down the Group.

Physical Properties Of Fluorine

But what about fluorine? That is a very small atom, with the incoming electron quite close to the nucleus. Why isn't its electron affinity bigger than chlorine's? There is another effect operating. When the new electron comes into the atom, it is entering a region of space already very negatively charged because of the existing electrons.

what are some physical properties of fluorine

There is bound to be some repulsion, offsetting some of the attraction from the nucleus. In the case of fluorine, because the atom is very small, the existing electron density is very high. That means that the extra repulsion is particularly great and lessens the attraction from the nucleus enough to property the electron affinity below that of chlorine.

If you explore the graphs, you will find that fluorine and chlorine are gases at room temperature, bromine is a liquid and fluorine a solid. Nothing very surprising there! All of the halogens exist as diatomic molecules - F 2Cl 2and so on. The intermolecular attractions between one molecule and its neighbours are van der Waals dispersion forces.

Split and merge into it.

Which element would be expected to have chemical and physical properties closest to those of fluorine?

Edit Answer by Jjennyy. It is a pale, yellow gas and has a density of 1. Was this answer useful? In Elements and Compounds. A physically-imbalanced, mathematically-insignificant stable chemical compound suspended with many melodies in classical piano repertoire. The halogens are much more soluble in organic solvents like hexane than they are in water. Both hexane and the halogens are non-polar molecules attracted to each other by van der Waals dispersion forces.

That means that the attractions broken fluorine hexane molecules and between halogen molecules are similar to the new "what ares some" made when the two substances mix.

what are some physical properties of fluorine

The colours of the solutions formed are much what you would expect. Solutions of iodine in organic solvents tend to be pinky-purple colour. Bond enthalpy is the heat needed to break one mole of a covalent bond to produce individual atoms, starting from the original substance in the gas state, and ending with gaseous atoms.

So for chlorine, Cl 2 git is the heat energy needed to carry out this change per mole of bond:. For bromine, the reaction is still from gaseous bromine molecules to separate gaseous atoms. A covalent bond works because the bonding pair is attracted to both the nuclei at either side of it.

what are some physical properties of fluorine

It is that attraction which holds the molecule together. The size of the attraction will depend, amongst other things, on the distance from the bonding pair to the two nuclei. That will still be the same whatever the size of the halogen atoms. As the atoms get bigger, the bonding pair gets further from the nuclei and so you would expect the strength of the bond to fall. The bond enthalpies of the Cl-Cl, Br-Br and I-I bonds fall just as you would expect, but the F-F "what are some" is way out of line!

Because fluorine atoms are so small, you might expect a very strong fluorine - in fact, it is remarkably weak.

what are some physical properties of fluorine

There must be another factor at work as well. As well as the bonding pair of electrons between the two atoms, each atom has 3 non-bonding pairs of electrons in the outer level - lone pairs. Where the bond gets very short as in F-Fthe lone pairs on the two atoms get close enough together to set up a significant amount of repulsion.

In the case of fluorine, this repulsion is great enough to counteract quite a lot of the attraction between the bonding pair and the two nuclei. This obviously weakens the bond. Where the halogen atom is attached to a hydrogen atom, this effect doesn't happen. There are no lone pairs on a hydrogen atom! As the halogen atom gets bigger, the bonding pair gets more and more distant from the nucleus. The attraction is less, and the bond gets weaker - exactly what is shown by the data.

The electron affinity therefore falls as you go down the Group. But what about fluorine? That is a very small atom, with the incoming electron quite propertirs to the nucleus. Why isn't its electron affinity bigger than chlorine's? There is another effect operating. When the new electron comes into the atom, it is entering a region of space already very negatively charged because of the existing electrons.

There is bound to be some repulsion, offsetting some of the attraction from the nucleus. In the case of fluorine, because the atom is very small, the existing electron density is very high. That means that the extra repulsion is particularly great and lessens the attraction from the nucleus physical properties to lower the electron affinity below that of chlorine. If you explore the graphs, you will find that fluorine and chlorine are gases at room temperature, bromine is a liquid and iodine a solid.

Nothing very surprising there! All of the halogens exist as diatomic molecules - F 2Cl 2and so on. The intermolecular attractions between one molecule and its neighbours are van der Waals dispersion forces. If you aren't sure about van der Waals dispersion forcesyou will find them covered in detail in another part of this site. You won't understand the next bit unless you are happy about dispersion forces and how they vary with the size of the molecule.

As the molecules get bigger there are obviously more electrons which can move around and set up the temporary dipoles which create these attractions.

Fluorine

The stronger intermolecular properrties as the molecules get bigger means that you have to supply more heat energy to turn them into either a liquid or a gas - and so their melting and boiling points rise. Fluorine reacts violently with water to give hydrogen physicxl gas or a solution of hydrofluoric acid and a mixture of oxygen and ozone.

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So thinking about its solubility is pointless. Chlorine, bromine and iodine all dissolve in water to some extent, but there is no pattern in this. These figures come from page of Advanced Inorganic Chemistry third edition by Cotton and Wilkinson.

Chlorine solution in water is pale green. Bromine solution in water is anything from yellow to dark orange-red depending on how concentrated it is. Iodine solution in water is very pale brown.

1 thoughts on “What are some physical properties of fluorine”

  1. Creasy says:

    It is remarkable, very good information

  2. Catti says:

    I do not see your logic

  3. Dimer says:

    Excuse, topic has mixed. It is removed

  4. Moondown says:

    It goes beyond all limits.