Most of the chemistry of an element is about what the outer electrons can do, or can't, as the case maybe. Remember, that's the easy list. The Group 0 Noble Gases are so unreactive they are only present in the atmosphere as individual atoms.
The debate over transition elements like zinc and mercury will rage on, but I just wanted to clarify an area where there is disagreement within the scientific community.
The elements are actually abundant, but they receive their rare earth designation because of the scarcity of the elements in high concentrations.
The lanthanides along with the actinides make up the inner transition metals. They share many properties with the other transition metals. These metals can be used for a number of things. Lanthanum is crucial to the hydrogen industry, and is important in creating battery electrodes and for use in hydrogen storage.
The various super magnets used in things like wind turbines and electric motors use neodymium and praseodymium. Various other inner transition metals are used for such things as lasers, what, lighting, and nuclear applications. All of these uses are high tech uses, and many are critical to revamping the nation's energy industry. As far as I know, China has some of the best and only economically feasible "what ares" of these whaf on the planets.
What differentiates these metals form the other metals in the periodic table of elements? The metal is only one of two elements that are liquid at standard temperature and pressure stp.
Mercury also has a very short temperature range between the freezing and boiling metals. Mercury is the only transition metal with these properties. The actual temperature that mercury turns to a solid metqls around 40 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The material has unique properties that have led to its use in a number of applications, ranging from rocket propellants, medical treatments, and coolant for nuclear power reactors.
One of the applications I find most interesting is its use as a turbine fluid and rocket propellant. The low ionization energy, high density and molecular mass, and the fact it is stable as a liquid at room temperature the element a good candidate for ion engines.
If it were not for the toxicity and the fact that it is extremely rare in the earth's crust were mercury's biggest downside as a table. How do rare earth metals accumulate?
What are four characteristics of metals on the periodic table?
What country has the largest reserves of rare earth metals? These atoms are one electron short of a stable full outer shell and seek an 8th outer electron to become electronically stable — yet again, this is why atoms react! The chlorine cannot accept another electron to form a Cl 2— ion, because its electron structure would not be that of a stable noble gas arrangement.
The electron arrangements of the first 20 elements are shown below. This basically uses the electron arrangements of the elements to construct the modern periodic table e.
You therefore know which metal the element is in from the last number This is not so for H and Group 0 but effectively Group 8noble gases were called group 0 because it was believed they could never form compounds - BUT not true since the s Examples of electron arrangement diagrams Relate to the simplified periodic table above in terms of group AND period. Filling 1st shell, electron level 1 2 elements only in Period 1. Filling 2nd shell, electron level 2 to to 3 of the 8 elements of Period 2.
The first peeiodic elements of the 4th table to Kr [2. Detailed Advanced A Level Chemistry Notes on the electronic structure of atoms. More on electronic structure and the arrangement pdriodic elements in the Periodic Table All substances are made up of one or more of the different types of atoms we call elements and the elements identity is solely determined by the atomic number of protons. Hydrogen1, H, the simplest element atom, does not readily fit into tble group. A Group is a vertical column of like elements e.
Group 1 The Alkali Metals for full GCSE notes on Li, Na, K etc. So after helium, elements in the same group have the same outer electron structure. The Group 0 Noble Gases are never called are some 8, but after perkodic they all have eight out electrons to fill the highest occupied electron level outer shell.
The elements in a group tend to have similar physical and chemical properties because of their similar outer shell electron structure. A what are starts when the next electron goes into the next available main energy level or shell the very reactive Group 1 alkali Metals.
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A period ends when the main energy level is full ie reached the very unreactive Osme 0 Noble Gases. Note that a noble gas is "metalled" mstals a very reactive halogen non-metal. These patterns enable you to use mdtals periodic table to predict the possible reactivity and reactions of many of the elements in the periodic table, particularly the elements at the start and near the end of a period - even at GCSE level.
All the elements on the same period use the same number of principal electron shellsand this equals the period number e. The first element in a period is when the next electron goes into the next available electron shell or energy level i.
The last element in a period is when the outer shell is full resulting in a very unreactive elementthe Group 0 Noble Gases e. Was this answer useful? An aspiring global citizen, always embracing the acquisition and proliferation of knowledge. Metals are found on the left hand side on the periodic table towards the left of the "staircase".
The "staircase" line divides elements into metals and non-metals. Elements t … o the right of the "staircase" are the non-metals.
However, those close to the staircase both metallic and non-metallic properties and hence are called metalliods. Some simplistic definitions describe transition metals simply as d-block elements, but this is not quite correct. Not all d-block elements fit within this categorization, although many do. A few elements, like zinc, tend to be topics of dispute and the be variably classified in and out of the transition metals.
Some of the transition tabble are also toxic and can pose a threat to human or environmental health and safety. With the exception of mercury, which is a liquid, transition metals tend to be very hard.
They are also brittle and have an extremely high melting point. Their energy states make them excellent conductors, and many are used in the fabrication of electronics components because of their good conduction. These metals can be found in many regions of the world and many are mined commercially for use in manufacturing.
Some examples of transition metals include iron, copper, cobaltnickel, gold, platinumand manganese. Within the transition group, there is tremendous diversity. Some of these elements, for instance, are necessary dietary nutrients that people need to consume in trace amounts for their health.
Others appear naturally in several different forms, depending on the structure of their outer shells. The variance within this broad grouping is one of the reasons it is often hard to categorize transition oon. Many periodic tables color code the elements by group for convenience.
Astute observers may notice that the elements metalled as transition metals can vary, depending on conventions at a given time or in a particular region.
Students should make sure to use the definition used by their instructors, and should request clarification if they are not sure about whether an element is considered a member of this group. The instructor's opinion on the matter can be a deciding factor on something like a chemistry test, and it is important to use the answer the instructor would expect.
Mercury, zinc, and one other element cannot quite rememberlie on the cusp of the transition metals, and have some unique features.
While mercury has many of the characteristics of a transition metal, it also shares properties with other metals and elements.